Meet the Hadza people of Tanzania and why they do not worry about shelter or food
The Hadza, or Hadzabe (Wahadzabe in Swahili),are a Tanzanian indigenous ethnic group mostly based in southwest Karatu District of Arusha Region. They live around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau. There are, as of 2015, between 1,200 and 1,300 Hadza people living in Tanzania, however only around 400 Hadza still survive exclusively based on the traditional means of foraging. Additionally, the increasing impact of tourism and encroaching pastoralists pose serious threats to the continuation of their traditional way of life
They do not keep any livestock nor do they grow or store food. They live on the providence that they will find food anytime they walk into the wild. The Hadza tribe of Tanzania are among one of the last hunter-gathering ethnic groups in Africa numbering over 1,300.
They rely on bows and arrows to acquire their protein needs and edible plants for their nutritional needs, according to National Geographic. They mainly feed on roots, fruits and honey for their survival. Their day starts with a long walk in grass fields to gather fruits, bee hives and tubers, but they only pick what is enough for their family and them.
The human needs of the Hadza tribesmen are limited. They do not build homes or own property, they only require dried grasses and branches to create their shelter. They are the modern hunter-gatherers who do not pay attention to seasons and periodic holidays. Many of them hail from Eyasi Valley in the hilly region of Tanzania.
Many anthropologists say the Hadza tribesmen are a bridge between the present and past in understanding human evolution. The Hadza tribesmen have unique ways of communicating. They do so by using familiar sounds generated from tapping and popping sounds.
Oral tradition indicates that they have resided in their present location near the Serengeti plains since the days that anthropologists discovered them. Archaeologists trace their origins to early men who lived 1.9 million years ago. Genetic analysis reveals they are associated with one of the early men in sub-Saharan Africa.
The existence and survival of the Hadza tribesmen have come under siege by expansive farming practices and urbanization. Studies on the tribesmen settlements show they have lost large swathes of their lands over half a century now. This has compelled the tribesmen to walk long distances with their bows and arrows in search of food.
But, once these lands are not disturbed, the tribesmen should not struggle to find food. In the Hadza tribe, it is acceptable to go on a search and return with no food. DNA analysis of the genes of the Hadza tribesmen indicates that they are connected to the mitochondrial lineage of early men. They are considered to be the oldest men to have walked on the African continent with anthropologists predicting that their ancestors could be 50,000 years old.
The Hadza tribesmen do not build cemeteries. Their philosophy is to erect their shelters of grass and live it behind once they are done hunting and gathering in a region. Any soil is suitable for the burial of their kinsmen.
They are considered one of the happiest men because they do not consider worry as part of their daily thoughts. They only worry about the future or the past but they do not believe in worrying about the present. The present is for the living and must be enjoyed to the fullest.
Their focus is to have what they need to eat and where to sleep. Once these needs are fulfilled, the Hadza tribesman has attained self-actualization.